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Ulcerative Colitis

Ulcerative Colitis Symptoms and Causes

Ulcerative Colitis Description

Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in which the inner lining of the large intestine (colon or bowel) and rectum become inflamed. Inflammation usually begins in the rectum and lower (sigmoid) intestine and spreads upward to the entire colon. Ulcerative colitis rarely affects the small intestine, except for the lower section, the ileum.

The inflammation causes diarrhea, or frequent emptying of the colon. As cells on the surface of the lining of the colon die and slough off, ulcers (open sores) form and may cause the discharge of pus and mucus, in addition to bleeding.

Ulcerative Colitis Symptoms

The most common ulcerative colitis symptoms may include:

  • Abdominal pain
  • Bloody diarrhea
  • Fatigue
  • Weight loss
  • Loss of appetite
  • Rectal bleeding
  • Loss of body fluids and nutrients
  • Anemia caused by severe bleeding

Sometimes, ulcerative colitis symptoms may also include:

  • Skin lesions
  • Joint pain
  • Inflammation of the eyes
  • Liver disorders
  • Osteoporosis
  • Rashes
  • Kidney stones

Ulcerative Colitis Causes

Although many theories exist regarding ulcerative colitis causes, none has been proven. The cause of ulcerative colitis is unknown, and currently there is no cure, except through surgical removal of the colon. One theory suggests that some agent, possibly a virus or an atypical bacterium, interacts with the body's immune system to trigger an inflammatory reaction in the intestinal wall.

Although much scientific evidence shows that people with ulcerative colitis have abnormalities of the immune system, physicians do not know whether these abnormalities are a cause or result of the disease.

There is little proof that ulcerative colitis is caused by emotional distress, sensitivity to certain foods and food products, or is the result of an unhappy childhood.

Although children and older people sometimes develop ulcerative colitis, it most often starts between the ages of 15 and 30. It affects males and females equally and appears to run in some families.

Ulcerative colitis requires long-term medical care. There may be remissions – periods when the symptoms go away – that last for months or even years. However, usually symptoms eventually return.

Only in rare cases, when complications occur, is the disease fatal. If only the rectum and lower colon are involved, the risk of cancer is not higher than normal. However, the risk of colon cancer is greater than normal in patients with widespread ulcerative colitis.