An amniocentesis is a procedure used to obtain a small sample of the amniotic fluid that surrounds the fetus to diagnose chromosomal disorders and open neural tube defects (ONTDs) such as spina bifida. Testing is available for other genetic defects and disorders depending on the family history and availability of laboratory testing at the time of the procedure. An amniocentesis is generally offered to women between the fifteenth and twentieth weeks of pregnancy who are at increased risk for chromosome abnormalities, or those who have had an abnormal maternal serum screening test, indicating an increased risk for a chromosomal abnormality or neural tube defect.
During an amniocentesis a long, thin needle is inserted through the mother's abdomen into the amniotic sac to withdraw a small sample of the amniotic fluid for examination. The amniotic fluid contains cells shed by the fetus, which contain genetic information. Although specific details of each procedure vary slightly, generally, an amniocentesis follows this process:
- The woman's abdomen is cleansed with an antiseptic.
- The physician may/may not give a local anesthetic to numb the skin.
- Ultrasound is used to help guide a hollow needle into the amniotic sac.
- A small sample of fluid is withdrawn for laboratory analysis.
- Strenuous activities should be avoided for 24 hours following an amniocentesis.
Women may feel some cramping during or after the amniocentesis.
Women with twins or other multiples need sampling from each amniotic sac, in order to study each baby. Depending on the position of the baby, placenta, amount of fluid, or patient's anatomy, sometimes the amniocentesis cannot be performed. The fluid is sent to a genetics laboratory so that the cells can grow and be analyzed. Alpha-fetoprotein, a protein made by the fetus that is present in the fluid, is also measured to rule out an open neural tube defect, such as spina bifida. Results are usually available in about 10 days to two weeks, depending on the laboratory.
The amniocentesis procedure is brief and causes minimal discomfort to the patient. It is a relatively safe procedure with little risk to the pregnancy.